Kathmandu Valley is the capital city of Nepal since 1769 AD. It deserved the seven UNESCO World Heritage Monument Zones in 1979 AD, the three Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Square (Kathmandu), Patan Durbar Square and Bhaktapur Durbar Square, the two Buddhist stupas of Swayambhunath stupa and Boudhanath stupa and the two Hindu temples of Pashupatinath temple and Changu Narayan temple. People believe the word Kathmandu is derived from Kasthamandap regarded as the one of the oldest building in Kathmandu Valley, built with the holy wood from one single Shorea Robusta, the Sal tree.
The Kathmandu World Heritage Monument Zone which warmly displays palaces, temples, stupas, and museums as the offerings of outstanding witness to the long-established civilization of the Kathmandu Valley from 5 century up to 18 century. All of them are closely associated with Hinduism and Buddhism legends, animist rituals, tantrism, fabulous festivals, mesmerizing Newari art, custom, tradition, and culture.
Swayambhunath Temple (Monkey Temple)
The word Swoyambhunath refers to self-appeared God. Once when Kathmandu valley was a huge lake the Bodhisattva Bipasvi threw a seed of lotus flower into the lake and a huge lotus flower appears with radiant blue light. The radiant blue light was considered the primordial Buddha. Bodhisattva Shantikaryacharya put the slab on self-originated blue light and built a Swoyambhu stupa with rites and rituals. He is also said to have established the Shantipur(sky), Vayupur(wind), Agnipur(fire), Nagpur(water) and Vasupur(earth) the five elements of the great universe.
Monkey Temple is its nickname owing to the huge population residing around the temple area.
Kathmandu Durbar Square:-
Kathmandu Durbar Square which is also called Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Square –is the center of civilization developed during the Malla dynasty in between 12th to 18th centuries. Hanuman means “Monkey God”, Dhoka means“Door” and Durbar means “Palace” in the Nepali language. Since the period of the Malla dynasty, the Durbar Square has been the central spot of a political and social evolution of Kathmandu. Archeologically and culturally it is the genuine achievements of the Malla Dynasty. After 1768 the kings of Shah Dynasty ruled Nepal from here until 1886 AD. Kathmandu Durbar Square was ruthlessly smashed due to the Nepal earthquake in April 2015; Nepal government has been managing a big effort to restore the temples and palaces at Durbar Square of Kathmandu.
The Hindu shrine, Pashupatinath belongs to God Shiva, located on the bank of holy river Bagmati is the two-tiered pagoda temple with gold painted roofs and having four silver doors built in 17th century in designed in during the Malla dynasty. According to the legends, fatigue, God Shiva came down to the earth to have a rest to get rid of from the busy work of heaven, tanking a form of golden deer and roaming around in dense forest many years. He was beloved by all animals in the jungle and respected as their supreme God. Gods in heaven felt his absence and found his disguised form the golden dear and caught the horn of it. The caught horns had broken into three parts. One part among the three of it went in depth into the earth and that was the primordial form of Shiva an iconic symbol.
The majestic Buddhist shrine Bouddhanath stupa, about 11 km far away to the northeast from the center of Kathmandu valley, is believed built during the reign of Lichhavi King Mandadev in the 5th century. The Stupa was on the ancient trade route from Tibet. The Stupa is claimed to entomb the relic of Kasyapa Buddha, the Buddha of third Bhadrakalpa. There are many construction legends associated with the stupa. Among them, the Newari legend says it was built by collecting the dew drops. So it is also called Khasti stupa. According to Newari language, the word Khasti refer to dew drops. Buddhanath is one of the greatest iconic spiritual Buddhist stupas. , there are over fifty Tibetan monasteries around the area built by Tibetan merchants and the large influx of Tibetan refugees over the years.
The renovation of Bouddhanath stupa campaign got successful in 2017 after being damaged by the merciless earthquake in 2015, April.